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ORIGINAL PAPER
 
 

Cadmium, mercury and lead in the blood of urban women in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, China, Ecuador and Morocco

Natalia Pawlas 1, 2  ,  
Bo Carlberg 4,  
Milena Cerna 5,  
Raúl Harari 6,  
Milena Horvat 7,  
Andrea Krskova 10,  
Mladen Krsnik 11,  
Yu-Feng Li 12,  
Lina Löfmark 3,  
Thomas Lundh 3,  
Badiaâ Lyoussi 14,  
Darja Mazej 7,  
Josko Osredkar 11,  
Krystyna Pawlas 15, 16,  
Vera Spevackova 10,  
Zdravko Spiric 17,  
Draženka Vadla 17,  
Soumia Zizi 14,  
 
1
Department of Chemical Hazards and Genetic Toxicology, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Sosnowiec, Poland
2
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Kościelna 13, 41-200, Sosnowiec, Poland
3
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
4
Division of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
5
Department of General Hygiene, Charles University in Prague, Third Faculty of Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic
6
Institute for the Development of Production and Work Environment, Quito, Ecuador
7
Department of Environmental Sciences, Institut Jožef Stefan, Ljubljana, Slovenia
8
Department of Health Informatics and Biostatistics, Regional Authority of Public Health, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
9
Department of Environmental Health, Regional Authority of Public Health, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia
10
Environmental and Population Health Monitoring, National Institute of Public Health, Prague, Czech Republic Headquarters
11
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
12
Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
13
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
14
Laboratory of Physiology, Pharmacology and Environmental Health, University of Fez, Fez Atlas, Morocco
15
Department of Hygiene, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
16
Laboratory of Audiology and Noise, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Sosnowiec, Poland
17
Oikon Ltd, Zagreb, Croatia
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2013;26(1):58–72
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Objectives: The aim of the study was to make an international comparison of blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd), lead (BPb) and mercury (B-Hg) of women in seven European, and three non-European cities, and to identify determinants. Materials and Methods: About 50 women (age: 46–62) from each city were recruited (totally 480) in 2006–2009. Interview and questionnaire data were obtained. Blood samples were analysed in one laboratory to avoid interlaboratory variation. Results: Between the European cities, the B-Pb and B-Cd results vary little (range of geometric means: 13.5–27.0 μg/l and 0.25–0.65 μg/l, respectively); the variation of B-Hg was larger (0.40–1.38 μg/l). Between the non-European cities the results for B-Pb, B-Cd and B-Hg were 19.2–68.0, 0.39–0.99 and 1.01–2.73 μg/l, respectively. Smoking was a statistically signifi cant determinant for B-Cd, while fi sh and shellfi sh intakes contributed to B-Hg and B-Pb, amalgam fi llings also contributed to B-Hg. Conclusions: The present results confi rm the previous results from children; the exposure to lead and cadmium varies only little between different European cities suggesting that other factors than the living area are more important. The study also confi rms the previous fi ndings of higher cadmium and lead levels in some non-European cities. The geographical variation for mercury is signifi cant.
eISSN:1896-494X
ISSN:1232-1087