ORIGINAL PAPER
Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette
Rouba Zeidan 1
,  
Samar Rachidi 1
,  
Sanaa Awada 1
,  
Amal Hajje 1
,  
Wafaa Bawab 1
,  
Pascale Salameh 1, 4  
 
 
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1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiological Research, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
2
Charité Medical University Hospital, Berlin, Germany
3
Doctoral School of Sciences & Technology, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon
4
Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath campus, Beirut, Lebanon
 
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2014;27(4):571–582
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS) with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 6.06) and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08) were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40), living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49) or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54) appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81), living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52) and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01). Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46) and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14). Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.
eISSN:1896-494X
ISSN:1232-1087