Chemical composition of surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy – Assessment of the risk to the patient
Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland
Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Parzęczewska 35, 95-100, Zgierz, Poland
Department of Chemical Hazard, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2014;27(2):314–325
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Results: Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. Conclusions: The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.