Numerical and clinical analysis of an eyeball injuries under direct impact
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Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Ophthalmology)
Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Otolaryngology)
Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering)
Online publication date: 2023-05-18
Corresponding author
Andrzej Skorek   

Medical University of Gdańsk, Department of Otolaryngology, Smoluchowskiego 17, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(2):263–273
Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a numerical model of the eyeball and orbit to simulate a blunt injury to the eyeball leading to its rupture, as well as to conduct a comparative analysis of the results obtained using the finite element method against the clinical material concerning patients who had suffered an eyeball rupture due to a blunt force trauma Material and Methods: Using available sclera biometric and strength data, a numerical model of the eyeball, the orbital contents, and the bony walls were developed from the ground up. Then, 8 different blunt force injury scenarios were simulated. The results of numerical analyses made it possible to identify possible locations and configurations of scleral rupture. The obtained results were compared against the clinical picture of patients hospitalized at the Department of Ophtalmology, Medical University of Gdańsk in 2010–2016 due to isolated blunt force trauma to the eyeball. Results: It has been demonstrated that the extent of damage observed on the numerical model that indicated a possible location of eyeball rupture did not differ from the clinically observed configurations of the scleral injuries. It has been found that the direction of the impact applied determines the location of eyeball rupture. Most often the rupture occurs at the point opposite to the clock-hour/positions of the impact application. The eyeball rupture occurs in the first 7–8 ms after the contact with the striking rigid object. It has been established that the injuries most often affected the upper sectors of the eyeball. Men are definitely more likely to sustain such injuries. Eyeball ruptures lead to significant impairment of visual acuity. Conclusions: This study may contribute to a better understanding of injury mechanisms and better treatment planning. It may also contribute to the development of eyeball protection methods for employees exposed to ocular injuries. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(2):263–73