1.191
IF5
0.947
IF
15
MNiSW
146.95
ICV
SHORT COMMUNICATION
 
 

Secondhand smoke exposure within semi-open air cafes and tobacco specific 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) concentrations among nonsmoking employees

Constantine I. Vardavas 1, 2  ,  
Maria Lymperi 4,  
 
1
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Center for Global Tobacco Control, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
2
Smoking and Lung Cancer Research Center, Hellenic Cancer Society, Athens, Greece
3
Department of Chemistry, Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), University of Crete, Crete, Greece
4
Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece
5
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2014;27(5):875–881
KEYWORDS:
ABSTRACT:
Objectives: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a defined occupational hazard. The association though between SHS exposure in semi-open air venues and tobacco specific carcinogen uptake is an area of debate. Material and Methods: A cross sectional survey of 49 semi-open air cafes in Athens, Greece was performed during the summer of 2008, prior to the adoption of the national smoke free legislation. All venues had at least 1 entire wall open to allow for free air exchange. Indoor concentrations of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) attributable to SHS were assessed during a work shift, while 1 non-smoking employee responsible for indoor and outdoor table service from each venue provided a post work shift urine sample for analysis of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). Results: Post work shift NNAL concentrations were correlated with work shift PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS (r = 0.376, p = 0.0076). Urinary NNAL concentrations among employees increased by 9.5%, per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations attributable to SHS after controlling for the time of day and day of week. Conclusions: These results indicate that the commonly proposed practice of maintaining open sliding walls as a means of free air exchange does not lead to the elimination of employee exposure to tobacco specific carcinogens attributable to workplace SHS.
eISSN:1896-494X
ISSN:1232-1087