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ORIGINAL PAPER
 
CC BY-NC 3.0 Polska
 
 

Small-for-gestational age prevalence risk factors in central Appalachian states with mountain-top mining

Hamid Ferdosi 1, 2  ,  
Steve H. Lamm 1, 3, 4,  
Rusan Chen 5,  
Ji Li 1, 6,  
 
1
Center in Epidemiology and Environmental Health, LLC, Washington, D.C., USA
2
George Washington University, Washington, D.C., USA (Milken Institute School of Public Health)
3
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
4
Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA (School of Medicine (Pediatrics))
5
Georgetown University, Washington, D.C., USA (Centers for New Designs in Learning and Scholarships)
6
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (School of Medicine)
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):11–23
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Objectives: To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. Material and Methods: Live birth certificate files (1990–2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining). Co-variable information, including maternal tobacco use, was also obtained from the live birth certificate. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained using multivariable logistic regression comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities to those without coal mining activities and comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities for those with and without mountain-top mining activities. Comparisons were also made among those who had reported tobacco use and those who had not. Results: Both tobacco use prevalence and SGA prevalence were significantly greater for mining counties than for non-mining counties and for MTM counties than for non-MTM counties. Adjustment for tobacco use alone explained 50% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 75% of the risk for MTM counties, including demographic pre-natal care co-variables that explained 75% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 100% of the risk for MTM. The increased risk of SGA was limited to the third trimester births among tobacco users and independent of the mining activities of their counties of residence. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the increased prevalence of SGA among residents of counties with mining activity was primarily explained by the differences in maternal tobacco use prevalence, an effect that itself was gestational-age dependent. Self-reported tobacco use marked the population at the increased risk for SGA in central Appalachian states. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):11–23
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Hamid Ferdosi   
Center in Epidemiology and Environmental Health, LLC, 3401 38th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20016, USA
eISSN:1896-494X
ISSN:1232-1087