An improvement of body surface area formulas using the 3D scanning technique
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Gdansk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland (Engineering Optimization and Modeling Center)
Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland (University Center for Cardiology)
Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Geriatrics, Internal Medicine, and Metabolic Bone Diseases)
Online publication date: 2024-04-16
Corresponding author
Leszek Sławomir Litzbarski   

Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Objectives: Body surface area (BSA) is one of the major parameters used in several medical fields. However, there are concerns raised about its usefulness, mostly due to the ambiguity of its estimation. Material and Methods: Authors have conducted a voluntary study to investigate BSA distribution and estimation in a group of 179 adult people of various sex, age, and physique. Here, there is provided an extended analysis of the majority of known BSA formulas. Furthermore, it was supplement with a comparison with the authors' propositions of enhanced formulas coefficients for known formulas models as well as with new power models based on an increased number of anthropometric data. Results: Introduction of the enhanced formulas coefficients cause a reduction of at least 30.5% in mean absolute error and 21.1% in maximum error in comparison with their known counterparts. Conclusions: In the context of the analysis presented it can be stated that the development of a single universal body surface area formula, based on a small number of state variables, is not possible. Therefore, it is necessary and justified to search for new estimation models that allow for quick and accurate calculation of body surface area for the entire population, regardless of individual body variations. The new formulas presented are such an alternative, which achieves better results than the previously known methods. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2024;37(2)
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