Employment outcomes for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
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University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Department of Behavioral Sciences Methods)
University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain (Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C))
University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA (Department of Allied Health Sciences)
Hospital Benito Menni CASM, Sisters Hospitallers, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain
International University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain (Department of Psychiatry)
Online publication date: 2017-04-26
Corresponding author
Juana Gómez-Benito   

University of Barcelona, Department of Behavioral Sciences Methods, Faculty of Psychology, Passeig de la Vall d’Hebron 171, C.P. 08035 Barcelona, Spain
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017;30(3):345-66
Access to employment plays a critical role in the recovery and functioning of people with schizophrenia. We have investigated the effectiveness of treatments to enhance employment outcomes for people with schizophrenia and evaluated the potential moderators of these outcomes. A literature search was conducted in CINAHL, Cochrane Databases, MEDLINE, ProQuest XML, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. Grey literature databases, references lists of the retrieved articles and specialized journals in the field were also inspected. Job placement, job tenure and wages earned were tested. Risk ratios were extracted for job placement and standardized mean differences were calculated for job tenure and wages earned. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials published between 1986 and December 2015 were analyzed. Engaging in a vocational intervention increases the likelihood of obtaining a competitive job (risk ratio (RR) = 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85–2.88) and has a positive impact on hours worked in any job (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.16–0.68). There was no evidence of intervention efficacy with regard to wages earned from competitive employment. Participation in rehabilitative vocational treatment is not sufficient to ensure work participation for people with schizophrenia. Comprehensive treatments are necessary to address functional deficits that hinder labor stability and job performance for people with schizophrenia. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):345–366
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