Environmental exposure to non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals and semen quality: An overview of the current epidemiological evidence
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Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Obstetrics)
“Gameta” Hospital, Rzgów, Poland (Department of Gynecology and Reproduction)
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Environmental Epidemiology)
Online publication date: 2018-05-11
Corresponding author
Dorota Zamkowska   

Medical University of Gdańsk, Department of Obstetrics, Kliniczna 1a, 80-402 Gdańsk, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2018;31(4):377-414
Some of the recent publications have reported a decline in semen quality in the last few decades. This phenomenon is associated with environmental factors, particularly with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The aim of this publication is to critically review the literature on exposure to the following 6 ubiquitous environmental non-persistent EDCs: bisphenol A, triclosan, parabens, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphate pesticides and phthalates, and on their influence on semen quality measured as sperm concentration, sperm volume, total sperm count, motility, total motile count, morphology, sperm motion, sperm DNA damage (comet extent, tail length, tail distributed moment, percent of DNA located in the tail (tail%), DNA fragmentation index, high DNA stainability, X:Y ratio and aneuploidy. Several electronic databases were systematically searched until 31 August 2016. Studies were qualified for the review if they: linked environmental exposure to non-persistent EDCs to semen quality outcomes, were published in English after 2006 (and, in the case of phthalates, if they were published after 2009) and were conducted in the case of humans. Out of the 970 references, 45 articles were included in the review. This review adds to the body of evidence that exposure to non-persistent EDCs may affect semen quality parameters and decrease semen quality. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(4):377–414
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