Evaluation of computer workstations ergonomics and its relationship with reported musculoskeletal and visual symptoms among university employees in Jordan
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Alfayha Model Academy, Amman, Jordan
The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan (School of Nursing, Community Health Nursing Department)
The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan (School of Nursing, Department of Clinical Nursing)
Online publication date: 2021-09-28
Corresponding author
Mohammed Ibrahim Yacoub   

The University of Jordan, School of Nursing, Department of Clinical Nursing, Queen Rania Str., Amman 11942, Jordan
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022;35(2):141-56
Objectives: Computer workstations are considered a potential workplace hazard. This study sought to evaluate computer workstation ergonomics in a university office environment, and to determine its relationship with musculoskeletal (MS) and visual symptoms reported by employees. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study. A total of 231 university employees were recruited using a stratified random sampling technique. By means of direct observation, computer workstations were evaluated using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ergonomic Computer Workstation Evaluation Checklist. In addition, the participants reported MS and visual symptoms during the past week and 12 months by completing questionnaires. Results: Several ergonomic deficiencies in computer workstations were identified. Seating, working area, and keyboard and input devices had the most documented deficits. A significant proportion of employees reported various MS symptoms during the past 12 months. The most affected body parts were the shoulders (37%), the lower back (34%), and the neck (29%). The most prevalent visual symptom was tired eyes (68%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that MS symptoms, such as ache, pain and discomfort, were significantly associated with the total scores on the OSHA components. Deficits in monitor ergonomics and its placement, particularly the presence of glare reflected on the screen, were also associated with reported visual symptoms. Independent variables, such as gender, age, employment duration, job type, daily computer work hours, and work pattern, reliably predicted the participants’ reported experience of various MS and visual symptoms. Conclusions: Both MS and visual symptoms are associated with deficits in computer workstation ergonomics. Appropriate strategies, work practices, and preventive measures are needed to eliminate occupational hazards associated with computer workstations. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2022;35(2):141–56
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