Social costs of loss in productivity-related absenteeism in Poland
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Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland (Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health)
Medical University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Rheumatology and Internal Medicine)
Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warszawa, Poland (School of Public Health, Department of Healthcare Organizations and Medical Certification)
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland (Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of of Epidemiology and Population Studies)
Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland (Department of Epidemiology, Demography and Biostatistics)
Institute of Rural Health, Lublin, Poland (Department of Women’s Health)
Online publication date: 2016-12-23
Corresponding author
Agnieszka Genowska   

Medical University of Bialystok, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Public Health, Szpitalna 37, 15-295 Białystok, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2017;30(6):917-32
Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate indirect costs associated with losses in productivity due to sickness absence among registered workers in Poland. Material and Methods: Data on sick leave durations in 2013 was obtained from the Social Insurance Institution (SII) (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych – ZUS). Based on the number of assumptions, this data was used for calculating absence durations. The costs of lost productivity were estimated on the basis of the measure of gross value added. Results: Estimated losses in productivity due to absenteeism in 2013 together accounted for 4.33% of gross domestic product (GDP) (17.09 billion euro). In the female population, the total value of losses amounted to 9.66 billion euro, but excluding the costs of pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium (2.96 billion euro), it was 6.7 billion euro. In the male population, the loss amounted to 7.43 billion euro. The highest overall costs of sickness absence based on age were found in the age group of 30–39 years (5.14 billion euro, including pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium – 1.474 billion euro; respiratory diseases – 0.632 billion euro, injuries and poisonings – 0.62 billion euro). In the group of people aged > 40 years, the highest cost was generated by bone-muscular diseases (1.553 billion euro) and injuries and poisoning (1.251 billion euro). Higher losses in the productivity of women in addition to pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium were due to mental and behavioral disorders (0.71 billion euro), diseases of the genitourinary system (0.38 billion euro), and neoplasms (0.35 billion euro). At the same time, in men, compared to women, we observed higher losses due to injuries and poisoning (1.65 billion euro), and diseases of musculoskeletal (1.26 billion euro), nervous (0.79 billion euro), circulatory (0.65 billion euro), and digestive (0.41 billion euro) systems. Conclusions: Improvement and further development of effective strategies for prevention of complications of pregnancy and chronic diseases in the workplace are necessary. Policies aimed at reduction of sickness absence could potentially increase prosperity and the socioeconomic situation in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):917–932
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