Cardiovascular risk factors among Polish employees of uniformed services
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Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland (Intercollegiate University Centre for Cardiology Fahrenheit Universities, Department of Family Medicine)
Pomeranian Regional Medical Commission in Gdańsk of the Ministry of Interior and Administration, Gdańsk, Poland
Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland (Institute of Mechanics and Machine Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Ship Technology)
Online publication date: 2023-11-14
Corresponding author
Bartosz G. Trzeciak   

Medical University of Gdansk, Intercollegiate University Centre for Cardiology Fahrenheit Universities, Department of Family Medicine, Dębinki 2, 80-211 Gdańsk, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2023;36(5):656–671
Objectives: Employees of uniformed services (EoUS) were screened for cardiovascular risk factors. Material and Methods: A total of 1138 EoUS (age M±SD 49.9±6.0 years) and 263 controls (age M±SD 54.4±9.7 years) under the care of the cardiology clinic in Gdańsk, Poland, were included in the study. Medical history and blood samples were collected, and a physical examination was performed. Ten-year cardiovascular risk of death was calculated using the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) risk algorithm for high-risk countries. Results: Significantly higher values of mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, mean total cholesterol level and mean BMI were recorded among the EoUS compared to controls (M±SD 141.7±11.6 mm Hg vs. 135.5±11.0 mm Hg, p < 0.001; 90.1±5.9 mm Hg vs. 84.5±6.8 mm Hg, p < 0.001; 6.01±0.76 mmol vs. 5.44±0.87 mmol, p < 0.001; 29.3±4.7 vs. 29.0±4.1, p < 0.001, respectively). Smoking cigarettes was most frequently reported by the youngest group (20–39 years old) – 47.7% and it was significantly higher in the entire EoUS group compared to control group (35.5% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.001). The occurrence of observed risk factors (blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, total cholesterol concentration >5 mmol, smoking,) was significantly higher among EoUS compared to controls (92.1% vs. 57.8%, p < 0.001; 89.0% vs. 66.9%, p < 0.001; 35.5% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001, respectively). In the male group, the mean calculated ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular events, the percentage of high calculated risk, and very high risk were higher in the EoUS group compared to controls (M±SD 4.44±3.49 vs. 4.23±3.86, p = 0.001; 23.7% vs. 20.2%, p = 0.007; 7.4% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of all identified risk factors was found to be higher among employees of uniformed services when compared to the control group. The presence of these risk factors within the population of uniformed service employees results in a greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(5):656–71