Perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland
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Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology)
Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Public Health and Social Medicine)
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Work Physiology and Ergonomics)
Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Department of Computer Science and Medical Statistics)
Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Department of Nutrition in Digestive Tract Diseases)
Online publication date: 2019-05-07
Corresponding author
Dorota Kaleta   

Medical University of Lodz, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Łódź, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2019;32(3):363–377
Objectives: This study aimed at assessment of the perceived barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among socially-disadvantaged populations in Poland. It is hypothesized that different factors can be considered depending on the level of smoking addiction. Therefore, a comparison between light and heavy smokers was performed. Material and Methods: Data collected during the second wave of a cross-sectional study carried out in the Piotrkowski District in October 2016 – February 2017 among 1668 socio-economically disadvantaged persons constituted the source of information for the present study. Barriers and motivators to smoking cessation among daily smokers were identified via face-to face interviews. Results: About one-third of the studied population admitted to being current daily smokers, almost 75% of whom were heavy smokers. The most common barriers to quitting smoking were related to difficulties in quitting (62%), the lack of willingness to quit (56%), as well as addiction and withdrawal symptoms (craving cigarettes [65%], habit [56%], stress and mood swings [55%]). A significantly higher proportion of such barriers was noted among heavy smokers compared to light smokers (p < 0.05). The following motivations to quit were pointed out by the respondents: available pharmacotherapy (47%), access to a free-of-charge cessation clinic (40%), and encouragement and support provided by their doctor (30%), with no differences between various levels of smoking addiction (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Developing effective interventions targeted at unique deprived populations requires understanding the barriers and motivators to quitting smoking. Social support and financial issues, including free-of-charge pharmacotherapy and cessation clinics, as well as doctor’s encouragement and support, are crucial for successful smoking cessation in this vulnerable population. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(3):363–77