Smoke-free homes in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic – a nationwide cross-sectional survey
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Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland (School of Public Health)
The Stanisław Konopka Main Medical Library, Warsaw, Poland
Central Clinical Hospital of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
University of Humanities and Economics in Łódź, Warsaw, Poland (UHE Satellite Campus in Warsaw)
Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Public Health)
Online publication date: 2022-12-27
Corresponding author
Aurelia Ostrowska   

Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, School of Public Health, Kleczewska 61/63, 01-826 Warsaw, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(1):84-95
Objectives: Secondhand smoke exposure causes serious health problems. Banning smoking in public venues decreases exposure to secondhand smoke. However, the implementation of smoke-free rules in a private setting (including homes) is largely voluntary. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and characteristics of voluntary smoke-free home rules in Poland during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to identify factors associated with the voluntary implementation of smoking bans at home. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2022 with a nationally representative sample of 1090 individuals aged ≥18 years in Poland. Data were collected using a computerassisted web interviewing (CAWI) technique. The research tool was an original questionnaire developed for the purpose of this study. Results: Nationally, 60.6% of individuals had total ban on smoking in home (100% smoke-free home rules), 34.0% had implemented a partial smokefree home rule and 5.4% had not implemented any smoke-free home rules. Over three-quarters of non-smokers (76.8%) and only one-fifth of smokers (20.7%) had adopted a full smoke-free home rule. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.22–2.22, p < 0.01), non-smokers (OR = 13.78, 95% CI: 9.80–19.38, p < 0.001), respondents who had higher education (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15–2.14, p < 0.01) as well as those who lived alone (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.52–3.90, p < 0.001) had higher odds of having a 100% smoke-free home rule. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the implementation of smoke-free home rules in Poland. Less than two-thirds of the Polish population has adopted a total smoke-free home rule, with significant gaps between smokers and nonsmokers. Information on current voluntary smoke-free rules will be useful for further implementation of the smoke-free law in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(1):84–95
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