The multidimensional nature of attitudes towards preventive vaccinations – a cross-sectional survey among Poles aged 15–39 years
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Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards, Allergology and Immunology)
KR Consulting, Warsaw, Poland
Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland (Department of Public Health)
Center of Postgraduate Medical Education, Warsaw, Poland (School of Public Health)
Online publication date: 2023-04-24
Corresponding author
Aneta Tomaszewska   

Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards, Allergology and Immunology, Banacha 1a, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(2):214-28
Objectives: Vaccination skepticism and vaccination refusal both constitute global public health concerns. Systematic monitoring of public attitudes towards vaccination is crucial for maintaining a high vaccination coverage rate. The study aimed to identify and characterize homogenous social groups distinguished by attitudes toward preventive vaccinations. Material and Methods: Between October and November of 2021, a nationwide representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1560 inhabitants of Poland aged 15–39 years. The study questionnaire included 60 questions on public attitudes towards vaccines, vaccination, and the COVID-19 pandemic. Factor analysis was applied to identify the main dimensions of vaccination attitudes. Results: Factor analysis included 22 variables and yielded 3 factors or dimensions that accounted for 48.5% of the model’s variability. Young adults were assigned into 6 homogeneous groups based on these factors: 1) general trust in vaccination, 2) vaccine safety concerns, 3) trust in fake medical news regarding COVID-19 vaccination, and denying the COVID-19 pandemic. Groups I–IV differed by sociodemographic factors and vaccination coverage rates. Nearly 60% of the respondents expressed concern regarding various aspects of vaccination. Conclusions: Most of Poland’s young adults lack clearly defined attitudes towards vaccination. Attitudes towards vaccination can be divided into 6 heterogeneous groups. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2023;36(2):214–28
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