The respiratory effects of toner exposure according to long-term occupational toner handling history: A longitudinal analysis, 2004–2013
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University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka, Japan (Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, Department of Work Systems and Health)
AEON Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan (Human Resource Department)
Mazda Motor Corporation, Hiroshima, Japan (Health Promotion Center, Safety, Health and Disaster Prevention Promotion Department)
Online publication date: 2018-12-17
Corresponding author
Masayuki Hasegawa   

University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, Department of Work Systems and Health, Ins1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, 807-8555, Fukuoka, Japan
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2018;31(6):809-22
The erratum to this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01643.

Objectives: This report shows the relationship between toner exposure and respiratory effects for individuals with a longterm occupational toner-handling history, from 2004 to 2013. Material and Methods: Authors studied 752 Japanese male workers in toner handling workshops. A total of 673 men who participated in an annual monitoring survey were analyzed in this study. The following monitoring was performed in the same season each year: personal exposure measurements, biological markers, respiratory function tests, a chest X-ray, chronic respiratory symptoms and incidences of respiratory diseases. To evaluate the toner exposure effect, the exposure categories suitable for each evaluation index were established. Results: For those with an occupational toner-handling history, the mean occupational toner-handling period was 14.36 years (standard deviation = 6.62); one participant had 35 years of exposure, which was the longest and one participant had 1 year of exposure which was the shortest. There were no statistically significant differences in the rate of change of respiratory function tests. An ANOVA conducted on blood and urine test results showed that statistically significantly differences were observed for a few items but all the values were very low and within the standard range. Conclusions: Authors conducted a 10-year ongoing study, but no obvious negative influences on health were attributed to toner exposure. In a work environment where adequate administrative controls are in place, personal toner exposure levels may be expected to be low, with no adverse effects on human health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(6):809–822
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