Determinants of heavy smoking: Results from the global adult tobacco survey in Poland (2009–2010)
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Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland
Department of Preventive Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752, Łódź, Poland
Department of Work Physiology and Ergonomics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland
Public Health Faculty, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland
Ministry of Health, Warszawa, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2012;25(1):66–79
Objective: The aim of current analysis was to identify socio-demographic correlates of heavy smoking. Materials and Methods: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a nationally representative household study was implemented in Poland between 2009 and 2010. We used data on representative sample of 1915 adults, age 25 years and older. The Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for heavy smoking to the broad number of variables including age, age at smoking onset, education, occupational classification, living conditions, place of residence, place of residence at age about 14 years, awareness of smoking health consequences were tested in logistic regression model. Results: Among daily smokers the rate of heavy smokers was 63% in males and 45% in females (p < 0.001). The present study indicated that three characteristics: age, early age at smoking onset and lack of awareness of smoking health consequences were significantly associated with heavy smoking among both genders. Significantly higher risk of heavy smoking was observed among the 50–59 years of age population compared to the youngest group. The heavy smoking rate was highest among males who started smoking under age 14 years (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4–6.7; p < 0.001) and females that started smoking at age 14–17 years (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5–3.5; p < 0.0001) compared to those who started smoking at age 21 years or older. Heavy smoking was significantly correlated to lack of awareness of adverse health consequences of smoking (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1–2.03; p < 0.01 and OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.2; p < 0.01 for men and women, respectively) compared to aware respondents. Conclusions: These outcomes should be taken into account while developing tobacco control measures. Among other things, educational interventions to increase knowledge of adverse tobacco health effects should be widely implemented.