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ORIGINAL PAPER
 
CC BY-NC 3.0 Polska
 
 

Poisoning deaths in Poland: Types and frequencies reported in Łódź, Kraków, Sosnowiec, Gdańsk, Wrocław and Poznań during 2009–2013

Anna Krakowiak 1  ,  
Piotr Hydzik 4,  
Wojciech Waldman 8, 9,  
Jacek Sein Anand 8, 9,  
Eryk Matuszkiewicz 10, 11,  
 
1
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Toxicology, Toxicology Unit)
2
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Toxicology, Poison Information Centre)
3
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Radiological Protection)
4
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland (Department of Clinical Toxicology)
5
Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland (Poison Information Centre)
6
Institute of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Sosnowiec, Poland (Regional Poisons Control Centre)
7
T. Marciniak Lower Silesian Specialized Hospital – Emergency Medicine Centre, Wrocław, Poland
8
Pomeranian Center of Toxicology, Gdańsk, Poland
9
Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland (Department of Clinical Toxicology)
10
University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland (Department of Emergency Medicine)
11
Raszeja Hospital in Poznań, Poznań, Poland (Department of Toxicology)
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):897–908
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
Objectives: The aim of this study has been to assess the characteristics of acute poisoning deaths in Poland over a period of time 2009–2013. Material and Methods: The analysis was based on the data obtained from the patient records stored in toxicology departments in 6 cities – Łódź, Kraków, Sosnowiec, Gdańsk, Wrocław and Poznań. Toxicological analyses were routinely performed in blood and/or urine. Major toxic substances were classified to one of the following categories: pharmaceuticals, alcohol group poisonings (ethanol and other alcohols), gases, solvents, drugs of abuse, pesticides, metals, mushrooms, others. Cases were analyzed according to the following criteria: year, age and gender of analyzed patients, toxic substance category and type of poisoning. The recorded fatal poisonings were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases. Results: The record of 261 deaths were retrospectively reviewed. There were 187 males (71.64%) and 74 females (28.36%) and the male to female ratio was 2.52. Alcohol group poisonings were more frequently responsible for deaths in men compared to all poisonings, 91.1% vs. 71.6%, respectively (p < 0.05), and pharmaceutical agents were more frequently responsible for deaths in women, 47.4% vs. 28.4%, (p < 0.05). Methanol was the most common agent in the alcohol group poisonings, accounting for 43.75% (N = 49), followed by ethylene glycol, 39.29% (N = 44), and ethanol, 16.96% (N = 19). Conclusions: Epidemiological profile data from investigation of poisoning deaths in Poland may be very useful for the development of preventive programs. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):897–908
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Anna Krakowiak   
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Department of Toxicology, św. Teresy 8, 91-348 Łódź, Poland
eISSN:1896-494X
ISSN:1232-1087