Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland
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Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Tobacco Control Department, Department of Preventive Medicine)
County Office, Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland
University of Massachusetts, Boston, USA (Department of Public Policy)
Medical University of Lodz, Łódź, Poland (Department of Social and Preventive Medicine)
Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland (Department of Work Physiology and Ergonomics)
Corresponding author
Dorota Kaleta   

Medical University of Lodz, Department of Preventive Medicine, Żeligowskiego 7/9, 90-752 Łódź, Poland
Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2015;28(3):557–570
Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS), low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001) and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001) who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.